Basic NAO Studies (chronological)


Walker, G. T., 1924: Correlations in seasonal variations of weather, IX. Mem. Indian Meteor., Dept., 24, 275-332.

Defant, A., 1924: Die Schwankungen der atmosphä rischen Zirkulation über dem Nordatlantischen Ozean im 25-jährigen Zeitraum 1881-1905. Geogr. Annaler, 6, 13-41.

Walker, G. T., and E. W. Bliss, 1932: World Weather V. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 44, 53-84.

Loewe, F., 1937: A period of warm winters in western Greenland and the temperature see-saw between western Greenland and Europe. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 63, 365-371.

Dannmeyer, F., 1948: Zur frage der Gegenmsätzlichkeit der kalten Winter in Grönland zu der warmen Wintern in Deutschland. Polarforschung., 2, 29-30.

Loewe, F., 1966: Temperature see-saw between western Greenland and Europe. Weather, 21, 241-246.

van Loon, H., and J. C. Rogers, 1978: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part I: General Description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 296-310.

Rogers, J. C., and H. van Loon, 1979: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part II: Some oceanic and atmospheric effects in middle and high latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107(5), 509-519.

Meehl, G. A., and H. van Loon, 1979: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part III: Teleconnections with lower latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107(9), 1095-1106.

Wallace, J., and D. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784-812.

Rogers, J. C., 1984: The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1999-2015.

Lanzante, J. R., 1984: A rotated eigenanalysis of the correlation between 700 mb heights and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112(11), 2270-2280.

Lamb, P. J., and R. A. Peppler, 1987: North Atlantic Oscillation: Concept and an application. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 1218-1225.

Moses, T., G. N. Kiladis, H. F. Diaz, and R. G. Barry, 1987: Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the North Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends. J. Climatology, 7, 13-30.

Barnston, A. G., and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1083-1126.

Carleton, A. M., 1988: Meridional transport of eddy sensible heat in winters marked by extremes of the North Atlantic Oscillation, 1948/49-1979/80. J. Climate, 4, 212-223.

Schneider, U., and C.-D. Schönwiese, 1989: Some statistical characteristics of El Niño/southern oscillation and North Atlantic oscillation indices. Atmosfera, 2, 167-180.

Rogers, J. C., 1990: Patterns of low-frequency monthly sea level pressure variability (1899-1986) and associated wave cyclone frequencies. J. Climate, 3, 1364-1379.

Glowienka-Hensa, R., 1990: The North Atlantic Oscillation in the Atlantic-European SLP. Tellus, 42A, 497-507.

Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-679.

Hurrell, J. W., and H. van Loon, 1997: Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climate Change, 36, 301-326.

Rogers, J. C., 1997: North Atlantic storm track variability and its association to the North Atlantic Oscillation and climate variability of Northern Europe. J. Climate, 10(7), 1635-1647.

Huang, J., K. Higuchi, and A. Shabbar, 1998: The relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(14), 2707-2710.

Loewe, P., and G. Koslowski, 1998: The western Baltic sea ice season in terms of a mass-related severity index 1879-1992. Part II. Spectral characteristics and associations with the NAO, QBO, and solar cycle. Tellus, 50A, 219-241.

Kodera, K., H. Koide, and H. Yoshimura, 1999: Northern Hemisphere winter circulation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and stratospheric polar night jet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(4), 443-446.

DeWeaver, E., and S. Nigam, 2000: Zonal-eddy dynamics of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 3893-3914.

Portis, D. H., J. E. Walsh, M. E. Hamly, and P. J. Lamb, 2001: Seasonality of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 14, 2069-2078.


Last updated 2001