The Complete NAO Bibliography

Angell, J. K., and J. Korshover, 1974: Quasi-biennial and long-term fluctuations in the centers of action. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 669-678.

Angell, J. K., and J. Korshover, 1982: Comparison of year-average latitude, longitude and pressure of the four centers of action with air and sea temperature, 1899-1978. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110(4), 300-303.

Angell, J. K., and J. Korshover, 1984: Some long-term relations between equatorial sea surface temperature, the four centers of action and 700 mb flow. J. Clim. and Appl. Meteor., 23, 1326-1332.

Angell, J. K, J. Korshover, and G. F. Cotten, 1969: Quasi-biennial variations in the "Centers of Action." Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 867-872.

Appenzeller, C., T. F. Stocker, and M. Anklin, 1998: North Atlantic Oscillation dynamics recorded in Greenland ice cores. Science, 282, 446-449.

Appenzeller, C., J. Schwander, S. Sommer, and T.F. Stocker, 1998: The North Atlantic Oscillation and its imprint on precipitation and ice accumulation in Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(11), 1939-1942.

Bacon, S., and D. J. T. Carter, 1993: A connection between mean wave height and atmospheric pressure gradient in the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 13(4), 423-436.

Baldwin, M. P., X. Cheng, and T. J. Dunkerton, 1994: Observed correlations between winter mean tropospheric and stratospheric circulation anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 1141-1144.

Barlow, L. H., J. W. C. White, R. G. Barry, J. C. Rogers, and P. M. Grootes, 1993: The North Atlantic Oscillation signature in deuterium and deuterium excess signals in the Greenland ice sheet Project 2 ice core. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(24), 2901-2904.

Barnett, T., H. Heinz, and K. Hasselmann, 1984: Statistical predictions of seasonal air temperature over Eurasia. Tellus, 36A, 132-146.

Barnston, A. G., and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1083-1126.

Barnston, A. G., and A. Kumar, 1999: Comment on "A three-year lagged correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and winter conditions over the North Pacific and North America". Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(4), 475-476. And reply by Lin & Derome.

Benner, T. C., 1999: Central England temperatures: long-term variability and teleconnections. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 391-403.

Blackmon, M., Y. Lee, and J. Wallace, 1984a: Horizontal structure of 500 mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scales. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 961-979.

Blackmon, M., Y. Lee, J. Wallace, and H. Hsu, 1984b: Time variation of 500 mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scales as deduced from lag-correlation statistics. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 981-991.

Bojariu, R., 1997: Climate variability modes due to ocean-atmosphere interaction in the central Atlantic. Tellus, 49A, 362-370.

Bresch, D. N., and H. C. Davies, 2000: Covariation of the mid-tropospheric flow and the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic: A statistical analysis. Theor. Appl. Climate, 65, 197-214.

Carleton, A. M., 1988: Meridional transport of eddy sensible heat in winters marked by extremes of the North Atlantic Oscillation, 1948/49-1979/80. J. Climate, 4, 212-223.

Carleton, A. M., 1985: Synoptic cryosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Northern Hemisphere from DMSP image analysis. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 6, 239-261.

Chen, D., and C. H. Hellström, 1999: The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the regional temperature variability in Sweden: spatial and temporal variations. Tellus, 51A, 505-516.

Cook, E. R., R. D. D'Arrigo, and K. R. Briffa, 1998: A reconstruction of the North Atlantic oscillation using tree-ring chronologies from North America and Europe. Holocene, 8, 9-17.

Cullen, H., and deMenocal, P., 2000: North Atlantic influence on Tigris-Euphrates streamflow. Int. J. Climatol., 20(80), 853-863.

Dannmeyer, F., 1948: Zur frage der Gegenmsätzlichkeit der kalten Winter in Grönland zu der warmen Wintern in Deutschland. Polarforschung., 2, 29-30.

Davis, R. E., B. P. Hayden, D. A. Gay, W. L. Phillips, and G. V. Jones, 1997: The North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. J. Climate, 10, 728-744.

Defant, A., 1924: Die Schwankungen der atmosphärischen Zirkulation über dem Nordatlantischen Ozean im 25-jährigen Zeitraum 1881-1905. Geogr. Annaler, 6, 13-41.

Deser, C., 2000: On the teleconnectivity of the "Arctic Oscillation". Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 779-782.

DeWeaver, E., and S. Nigam, 2000: Do stationary waves drive the zonal-mean jet anomalies of the Northern winter? J. Climate, 13, 2160-2176.

DeWeaver, E., and S. Nigam, 2000: Zonal-eddy dynamics of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 2160-2176.

Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Adlandsvik, T. Vigne, G. Alekseev, W. Maslowski, and H. Cattle, 1998: The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Proc. ACSYS Conf. On Polar Processes and Global Climate, Orcas Island, WA, November 1997, World Climate Research Programme, WCRP-106, pp. 46-47.

Dickson, R. R., 1995: The local, regional, and global significance of exchanges through the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea. In Natural climate variability on Decadal-to-Century time scales, D. L. Martinson et al, eds, National Academy Press, 800 pp.

Dickson, R., J. Lazier, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, 1996: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. In Decadal Climate Variability, Dynamics and Predictability, edited by D. L. T. Anderson and J. Willebrand, NATO ASI Series Vol. I 44, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 211-261.

Dickson, R., and Lee, A., 1996: Atmospheric and marine climate fluctuations in the North Atlantic region. Prog. Oceanogr., 5, 55-65.

Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Adlandsvik, T. Vinje, G. Alekseev, and W. Maslowski, 2000: The Arctic Ocean Response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 2671-2696.

Esbensen, S. K., 1984: A comparison of intermonthly and interannual teleconnections in the 700 mb geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 2016-2032.

Fritz, S., 1986: Precipitation over northern Honduras and the Icelandic low in December. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114(1), 250-252.

Glowienka, R., 1985: Studies on the variability of Icelandic low and Azores high between 1881 and 1983. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 58, 160-170.

Glowienka-Hensa, R., 1990: The North Atlantic Oscillation in the Atlantic-European SLP. Tellus, 42A, 497-507.

Griffies, S. M., and K. Bryan, 1997: Predictability of North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability. Science, 275, 181-184.

Hakkinen, S., 2000: Decadal air-sea interaction in the North Atlantic based on observations and modeling results. J. Climate, 13, 1195-1219.

Hann, J., 1890: Zur Witterungsgeschichte von Nord-Grönland, Westküste. Meteor. Z., 7, 109-115.

Higuchi, K., J. Huang, and A. Shabbar, 1999: A wavelet characterization of the North Atlantic Oscillation variation and its relationship to the North Atlantic sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 1119-1129.

Hill, B. T., and S. J. Jones, 1990: The Newfoundland ice extent and the solar cycle from 1860 to 1988. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 5385-5394.

Huang, J., K. Higuchi, and A. Shabbar, 1998: The relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(14), 2707-2710.

Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-679.

Hurrell, J. W., 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 665-668.

Hurrell, J. W., and H. van Loon, 1997: Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climate Change, 36, 301-326.

Jacobi, C., and B. R. Beckmann, 1999: On the connection between upper atmospheric dynamics and tropospheric parameters: Correlations between mesopause region winds and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic Change, 43(3), 629-643.

Jones, P. D., T. Jonsson, and D. Wheeler, 1997: Extension to the North Atlantic oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibralter and south-west Iceland. Int. J. Climatol., 17, 1433-1450.

Kelly, P.M., and T.M.L. Wigley, 1977: Solar influences on North Atlantic mean sea level pressure. Nature, 269, 320-322.

Kettlewell, P. S., R. B. Sothern, and W. L. Koukkari, 1999: U.K. wheat quality and economic value are dependent on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Cereal Science, 29, 205-209.

Kodera, K., H. Koide, and H. Yoshimura, 1999: Northern Hemisphere winter circulation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and stratospheric polar night jet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(4), 443-446.

Koslowski, G., and P. Loewe, 1994: The western Baltic ice season in terms of mass-related severity index: 1879-1992. Part I: temporal variability and association with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Tellus, 46A, 66-74.

Koslowski, G., and R. Glaser, 1999: Variations in reconstructed ice winter severity in the western Baltic from 1501 to 1995, and their implications for the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic Change, 41(2), 175-191.

Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic surface temperature and associated atmospheric circulations. J. Climate, 7, 141-157.

Kushnir, Y., and I. M. Held, 1996: Equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies. J. Climate, 9, 1208-1220.

Kushnir, Y., V. J. Cardone, J. G. Greenwood, and M. Cane, 1997: On the recent increase in North Atlantic wave heights. J. Climate, 10, 2107-2113.

Kutzback, J. E., 1970: Large-scale features of monthly mean Northern Hemisphere anomaly maps of sea-level pressure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 708-716.

Kwok, R., 2000: Recent changes in Arctic Ocean sea ice motion associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 775-778.

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock, 1999: Variability of Fram Strait ice flux and North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 5177-5189.

Lamb, P. J., and R. A. Peppler, 1987: North Atlantic Oscillation: Concept and an application. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 1218-1225.

Lanzante, J. R., 1984: A rotated eigenanalysis of the correlation between 700 mb heights and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112(11), 2270-2280.

Lau, N.-C., 1988: Variability of the observed midlatitude storm tracks in relation to low-frequency changes in the circulation pattern. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2718-2743.

Lazier, J. N. R., 1980: Oceanographic conditions at Ocean Weather Station BRAVO 1964-1974. Atmosphere-Ocean, 18, 227-238.

Lazier, J. N. R., 1988: Temperature and salinity changes in the deep Labrador Sea, 1962-1986. Deep Sea Res., 35, 1247-1253.

Lin, H., and J. Derome, 1998: A three-year lagged correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and winter conditions over the North Pacific and North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(15), 2829-2832. See Barnston & Kumar.

Loewe, F., 1937: A period of warm winters in western Greenland and the temperature see-saw between western Greenland and Europe. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 63, 365-371.

Loewe, F., 1966: Temperature see-saw between western Greenland and Europe. Weather, 21, 241-246.

Loewe, P., and G. Koslowski, 1998: The western Baltic sea ice season in terms of a mass-related severity index 1879-1992. Part II. Spectral characteristics and associations with the NAO, QBO, and solar cycle. Tellus, 50A, 219-241.

Lorenz, E., 1951: Seasonal and irregular variations of the Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure profile. J. Meteor., 8, 52-59.

Luterbacher, J., C. Schmutz, D. Gyalistras, E. Xoplaki, and H. Wanner, 1999: Reconstruction of monthly NAO and EU indices back to AD 1675. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(17), 2745-2748.

Mächel, H., A. Kapala, and H. Flohn, 1998: Behavior of the centers of action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual variability. Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1-22.

Makrogiannis, T. J., 1988: The time variations of the relative mass of air over the major part of Europe. Zeit. Meteor., 2, 80-86.

Makrogiannis, T. J., 1984: Local zonal index and circulation change in the European area 1873-1972. Arch. Met., Geophys., and Bioclim. Series B, 34, 39-48.

Makrogiannis, T. J., A. A. Bloutsos, and B. D. Giles, 1982: Zonal index and circulation changes in the north Atlantic area, 1873-1972. J. Climatology, 2, 159-169.

Makrogiannis, T. J., B. D. Giles, and A. A. Flocas, 1981: The problem of the extension of the Siberian Anticyclone towards southeast Europe, and its relation to atmospheric circulation anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. A, 30, 185-196.

Malmgren, B. A., A. Winter, and D. Chen, 1998: El-Nino-Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation control of climate in Puerto Rico. J. Climate, 11, 2713-2717.

McHugh, M., and J. C. Rogers, 2001: North Atlantic Oscillation influence on precipitation variability around the southeast African convergence zone. J. Climate, 14, 3631-3642.

Meehl, G. A., and H. van Loon, 1979: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part III: Teleconnections with lower latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107(9), 1095-1106.

Molinari, R. L., D. A. Mayer, J. F. Festa, and H. F. Bezdek, 1997: Multiyear variability in the near-surface temperature structure of the mid-latitude western North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3267-3278.

Moulin, C., C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, and U. Dayan, 1997: Atmospheric export of dust from North Africa: Control by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature, 387, 691-694.

Moron, V., R. Vautard, and M. Ghil, 1998: Trends, interdecadal and interannual oscillations in global sea surface temperatures. Climate Dynamics, 14(7/8), 545-569.

Moses, T., G. N. Kiladis, H. F. Diaz, and R. G. Barry, 1987: Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the North Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends. J. Climatology, 7, 13-30.

Myers, R. A., S. A. Akenhead and K. Drinkwater, 1988: The North Atlantic Oscillation and the ocean climate of the Newfoundland shelf. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea, [Contributions to the council meetings 1988, C] 12, 1-26.

Mysak, L. A., R. G. Ingram, J. Wang, and A. van der Baaren, 1996: The anomalous sea-ice extent in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea during three simultaneous NAO and ENSO episodes. Atmos.-Ocean, 34, 313-343.

Osborn, T. J., K. R. Briffa, S. F. B. Tett, P. D. Jones, and R. M. Trigo, 1999: Evaluation of the North Atlantic oscillation as simulated by a coupled climate model. Climate Dynamics, 15(9), 685-702.

Perlwitz, J., and H. F. Graf, 1995: The statistical connection between tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere in winter. J. Climate, 8, 2281-2295.

Perry, A. H., 1971: Changes in position and intensity of major Northern Hemisphere 'centres of action'. Weather, 26, 268-270.

Pohjola, V. A., and J. C. Rogers, 1997: Atmospheric circulation and variations in Scandinavian glacier mass balance. Quaternary Research, 47(1), 29-36.

Pohjola, V. A., and J. C. Rogers, 1997: Coupling between the atmospheric circulation and extremes of the mass-balance of Storglaciären, northern Scandinavia. Annals of Glaciology, 24, 229-233.

Polyakov, I. V., A. Y. Proshutinsky, and M. A. Johnson, 2000: Seasonal cycles in two regimes of Arctic climate. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25761-25788.

Portis, D. H., J. E. Walsh, M. E. Hamly, and P. J. Lamb, 2001: Seasonality of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 14, 2069-2078.

Robertson, A. W., C. R. Mechoso, Y. J. Kim, 2000: The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 122-138.

Rodó, X., E. Baert, and F. A. Comín, 1997: Variations in seasonal rainfall in southern Europe during the present century: relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Climate Dynamics, 13(4), 275-284.

Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320-323.

Rogers, J. C., 1997: North Atlantic storm track variability and its association to the North Atlantic Oscillation and climate variability of Northern Europe. J. Climate, 10(7), 1635-1647.

Rogers, J. C., 1990: Patterns of low-frequency monthly sea level pressure variability (1899-1986) and associated wave cyclone frequencies. J. Climate, 3, 1364-1379.

Rogers, J. C., 1985: Atmospheric circulation changes associated with the warming over the Northern North Atlantic in the 1920's. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24, 1303-1310.

Rogers, J. C., 1984: The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1999-2015.

Rogers, J. C., and H. van Loon, 1979: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part II: Some oceanic and atmospheric effects in middle and high latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107(5), 509-519.

Rogers, J. C., J. F. Bolzan, and V. A. Pohjola, 1998: Atmospheric circulation variability associated with shallow-core seasonal isotopic extremes near Summit Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 103(D10), 11,205-11,219.

Sahsamanoglou, H. S., 1990: A contribution to the study of action centers in the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 247-261.

Schneider, U., and C.-D. Schönwiese, 1989: Some statistical characteristics of El Niño/southern oscillation and North Atlantic oscillation indices. Atmosfera, 2, 167-180.

Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, M. Visbeck, N. Naik, J. Miller, G. Krahmann, and H. Cullen, 2000: Causes of Atlantic ocean climate variability between 1958 and 1998. J. Climate, 13, 2845-2862.

Serreze, M. C., F. Carse, R. G. Barry, and J. C. Rogers 1997: Icelandic Low cyclone activity: Climatological features, linkages with the NAO and relationships with recent changes elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 10(3), 453-464.

Taylor, A. H., and J. A. Stephens, 1998: The North Atlantic Oscillation and latitude of the Gulf Stream. Tellus, 50A, 134-142.

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297-1300.

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1999: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 1000-1016.

Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13, 1018-1036.

Tinsley, B. A., 1988: The solar cycle and the QBO influences on the latitude of storm tracks in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 409-412.

Tunberg, B. G., and W. G. Nelson, 1998: Do climatic oscillations influence cyclical patterns of soft bottom macrobenthic communities on the Swedish west coast? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 170, 85-94.

Ulbrich, U., M. Christoph, J. G. Pinto, J. Corte-Real, 1999: Dependence of winter precipitation over Portugal on NAO and baroclinic wave activity. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 379-392.

Ulbrich, U., and M. Christoph, 1999: A shift of the NAO and increasing storm track activity over Europe due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. Climate Dynamics, 15(7), 551-559.

van Loon, H. and J.C. Rogers, 1978: The Seesaw in Winter Temperatures Between Greenland and Northern Europe. Part I: General Description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 296-310.

Visbeck, M., H. Cullen, G. Krahmann, and N. Naik, 1998: An ocean model's response to North Atlantic Oscillation like wind forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4521-4524.

von Storch, J.-S., 2000: Angular momenta of the Antarctic and the Arctic Oscillations. J. Climate, 13, 681-685.

Walker, G. T., 1924: Correlations in seasonal variations of weather, IX. Mem. Indian Meteor. Dept., 24, 275-332.

Walker, G. T., and E. W. Bliss, 1932: World Weather V. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 44, 53-84.

Wallace, J., and D. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784-812.

Wallace, J. M., C. Smith, and Q. Jiang, 1990: Spatial patterns of atmospheric-ocean interaction in the northern winter. J. Climate, 3, 990-998.

Wallace, J. M., 2000: North Atlantic Oscillation/Northern Hemisphere annual mode, 2000: One phenomenon, two paradigms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 791-805.

Wang, J., and M. Ikeda, 2000: Arctic oscillation and Arctic sea-ice oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1287-1290.

White, J. W. C., L. K. Barlow, D. Fisher, J. Jouzel, S. J. Johnsen, M. Stuiver, and H. Clausen, 1997: The climate signal in stable isotopes of snow from Summit, Greenland: Results of comparisons with modern climate observations. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26425-26439.

Wilder, R. L., G. O'Hare, and N. Barnsley, 1997: The North Atlantic Oscillation and British Isles climate variability, 1865-1996. Weather, 52, 266-275.

Wunsch, C., 1999: The interpretation of short climate records, with comments on the North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 245-255.

Yarnel, B., and D. J. Leathers, 1988: Relationships between interdecadal and interannual climatic variations and their effect on Pennsylvania climate. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr., 78, 624-641.

Zhou, Y., D. Zheng, M. Zhao, and B.F. Chao, 1998: Interannual polar motion with relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Global and Planetary Change, 18, 79-84.

Zveryaev, I. I., 1999: Decadal and longer changes of the winter sea level pressure fields and related synoptic activity over the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 1177-1185.

Last updated 2001