Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

Bacon, S., and D. J. T. Carter, 1993: A connection between mean wave height and atmospheric pressure gradient in the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 13(4), 423-436.

Bresch, D. N., and H. C. Davies, 2000: Covariation of the mid-tropospheric flow and the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic: A statistical analysis. Theor. Appl. Climate, 65, 197-214.

Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Adlandsvik, T. Vigne, G. Alekseev, W. Maslowski, and H. Cattle, 1998: The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Proc. ACSYS Conf. On Polar Processes and Global Climate, Orcas Island, WA, November 1997, World Climate Research Programme, WCRP-106, pp. 46-47.

Dickson, R. R., 1995: The local, regional, and global significance of exchanges through the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea. In Natural climate variability on Decadal-to-Century time scales, D. L. Martinson et al, eds, National Academy Press, 800 pp.

Dickson, R., J. Lazier, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, 1996: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. In Decadal Climate Variability, Dynamics and Predictability, edited by D. L. T. Anderson and J. Willebrand, NATO ASI Series Vol. I 44, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 211-261.

Dickson, R., and Lee, A., 1996: Atmospheric and marine climate fluctuations in the North Atlantic region. Prog. Oceanogr., 5, 55-65.

Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Adlandsvik, T. Vinje, G. Alekseev, and W. Maslowski, 2000: The Arctic Ocean Response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 2671-2696.

Hakkinen, S., 2000: Decadal air-sea interaction in the North Atlantic based on observations and modeling results. J. Climate, 13, 1195-1219.

Higuchi, K., J. Huang, and A. Shabbar, 1999: A wavelet characterization of the North Atlantic Oscillation variation and its relationship to the North Atlantic sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 1119-1129.

Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic surface temperature and associated atmospheric circulations. J. Climate, 7, 141-157.

Kushnir, Y., and I. M. Held, 1996: Equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies. J. Climate, 9, 1208-1220.

Kushnir, Y., V. J. Cardone, J. G. Greenwood, and M. Cane, 1997: On the recent increase in North Atlantic wave heights. J. Climate, 10, 2107-2113.

Kwok, R., 2000: Recent changes in Arctic Ocean sea ice motion associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 775-778.

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock, 1999: Variability of Fram Strait ice flux and North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 5177-5189.

Molinari, R. L., D. A. Mayer, J. F. Festa, and H. F. Bezdek, 1997: Multiyear variability in the near-surface temperature structure of the mid-latitude western North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3267-3278.

Moron, V., R. Vautard, and M. Ghil, 1998: Trends, interdecadal and interannual oscillations in global sea surface temperatures. Climate Dynamics, 14(7/8), 545-569.

Mysak, L. A., R. G. Ingram, J. Wang, and A. van der Baaren, 1996: The anomalous sea-ice extent in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea during three simultaneous NAO and ENSO episodes. Atmos.-Ocean, 34, 313-343.

Robertson, A. W., C. R. Mechoso, Y. J. Kim, 2000: The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 122-138.

Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320-323.

Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, M. Visbeck, N. Naik, J. Miller, G. Krahmann, and H. Cullen, 2000: Causes of Atlantic ocean climate variability between 1958 and 1998. J. Climate, 13, 2845-2862.

Taylor, A. H., and J. A. Stephens, 1998: The North Atlantic Oscillation and latitude of the Gulf Stream. Tellus, 50A, 134-142.

Wallace, J. M., C. Smith, and Q. Jiang, 1990: Spatial patterns of atmospheric-ocean interaction in the northern winter. J. Climate, 3, 990-998.

Zveryaev, I. I., 1999: Decadal and longer changes of the winter sea level pressure fields and related synoptic activity over the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 1177-1185.

Last updated 2001