The Polar MM5


Description:

Based on the experience of previous research into mesoscale modeling in polar regions by the Polar Meteorology Group of the Byrd Polar Research Center at The Ohio State University, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been modified for use in polar regions (referred to as the Polar MM5). The key modifications are:

Model validations and case studies of Polar MM5 simulations over Greenland and Antarctica have been performed, and the results published in the journal literature. References and full text versions of these articles are provided below. The Polar MM5 is now available as options in the public release version of MM5 (v3.5 and later) from NCAR. For convenience, the source code is also provided below.

The Polar MM5 is currently being used for synoptic and climate scale studies in the data sparse high latitudes. It is also being used to re-create the paleoclimate conditions over the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered most of North America about 20,000 years ago, prior to its retreat to what is present-day Greenland. The model is also used by forecasters as part of the National Science Foundation sponsored Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS; link provided below) to meet the operational and logistic needs of the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). Under a collaborative project with the Polar Meteorology Group, AMPS simulations are performed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research twice per day (00Z and 12Z initializations), and cover progressively finer domains ranging from 90-km (covering most of the Southern Hemisphere) to 3-km (covering the region immediately surrounding McMurdo Station, the base of USAP operations). A 60-km resolution version of the Polar MM5 is run here at the Byrd Polar Research Center once per day as a backup to AMPS (link provided below).


Publications:

  • Box, J. E., D. H. Bromwich, and L.-S. Bai, 2004: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance 1991-2000: application of Polar MM5 mesoscale model and in-situ data. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004451. Full Text (PDF)

  • Box, J. E., D. H. Bromwich, B. A. Veenhuis, L.-S Bai, J. C. Stroeve, J. C. Rogers, K. Steffen, T. Haran, S.-H. Wang, 2006: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output. J. Climate, 19, 2783-2800. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., J. J. Cassano, T. Klein, G. Heinemann, K. M. Hines, K. Steffen, and J.E. Box, 2001: Mesoscale modeling of katabatic winds over Greenland with the Polar MM5. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2290-2309. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., A. J. Monaghan, J. G. Powers, J. J. Cassano, H. Wei, Y.-H. Kuo, and A. Pellegrini, 2003: Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS): A case study from the 2000/2001 field season. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 412-434. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., A. J. Monaghan, and Z. Guo, 2004: Modeling the ENSO modulation of Antarctic climate in the late 1990s with Polar MM5. J. Climate, 17, 109-132. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., Z. Guo, L.-S. Bai, and Q.-S. Chen, 2004: Modeled Antarctic precipitation. Part I: spatial and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17, 427-447. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., A. J. Monaghan, K. W. Manning, and J. G. Powers, 2005: Real-time forecasting for the Antarctic: An evaluation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 579-603. Full Text (PDF)

  • Bromwich, D. H., L.-S. Bai, and G. G. Bjarnason, 2005: High Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Iceland Using Polar MM5. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 3527-3547. Full Text (PDF)

  • Cassano, J. J., J. E. Box, D. H. Bromwich, L. Li, and K. Steffen, 2001: Evaluation of Polar MM5 simulations of Greenland's atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33,867-33,890. Full Text (PDF)

  • Guo, Z., D. H. Bromwich, and J. J. Cassano, 2003: Evaluation of Polar MM5 simulations of Antarctic atmospheric circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 384-411. Full Text (PDF)

  • Guo, Z., D. H. Bromwich, and K. M. Hines, 2004: Modeled Antarctic precipitation. Part II: ENSO modulation over West Antarctica. J. Climate, 17, 448-465. Full Text (PDF)

  • Monaghan, A. J., D. H. Bromwich, H. Wei, A. M. Cayette, J. G. Powers, Y.-H. Kuo, and M. Lazzara, 2003: Performance of weather forecast models in the rescue of Dr. Ronald Shemenski from South Pole in April 2001. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 142-160. Full Text (PDF)

  • Monaghan, A. J., D. H. Bromwich, J. G. Powers, and K. W. Manning, 2005: The climate of the McMurdo, Antarctica region as represented by one year of forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System. J. Climate., 18,1174-1189. Full Text (PDF)

  • Monaghan, A. J., D. H. Bromwich, and S.-H. Wang, 2006: Recent trends in Antarctic snow accumulation from Polar MM5. Philosophical Trans. Royal. Soc. A, 364, 1683-1708. Full Text (PDF)

  • Powers, J. G., A. J. Monaghan, A. M. Cayette, D. H. Bromwich, Y.-H. Kuo, and K. W. Manning, 2003: Real-time mesoscale modeling over Antarctica: The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1533-1545. Full Text (PDF)